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+6&_=(E:7d(EVambHbfldOI0+X^$W#UCo10E(T+SOAIVgik"d)@B2o/c8S3]>Rd?_ Heat treatmentis defined as an operation involving the heating and cooling of a metal or an alloy in the solid-state to obtain certain desirable properties without change composition. nH(G*g0[h'-*>EPUUr/<27GGEb9F+)Z8ZbL9p,94EoG2J#^f^V._=-$k-4gL 9;? Zj1BWdP,l.oUYWs`aYd?8ta9":uicL+-p"Aa3j4%oM!pMM33`r_,ET] arA>T%]l"&@pS..Y3HeS,hKT4d3d/BB8?LpnA:_M;`FUBd]``0aT.GR5 (eF=mC9RRqq1>a-O;^(-g7Nspe-%^Q^MO>NR7_t!B!Ff,Q U-h7(EDkh&_0I5Damd8*?2[fjg**&S?#7f//p8i(C[jaA@H)lI[BA3Xob#LK=Y>T8 >^.ng5+67D44QK!QNAZr1[m$"$T"EC*n@Dh2g3:Z?S'X, To increase resistance to wear, heat … [\)EpIj1O&bKAAVS"2r4&8E8s^@ j"'%+=hgA)(bfq4HcYbF4G2R#*@UYX6Y%D%DgeHaZKsq#qr%b)*QV62,op(3r @iaio:ST,2)]:FeN5L1k+T,ktt GI8'7>IOZ@Z)qP!%\4;hna__!4CF-^$iF4PPX!,-(PA2)!PkZ08o1K0+SCle3;fDDM_i\0_IrFW>4t_e!F\9>h [T9gjWuK :%pXISQ>qLXFrKV+:`W\EMrsHTU]U(mhc3eb!NV7tl`c;0P*=T!5mnrCiu_hZ#Ur;bP]Pi;r]5^_+=( )R*;4!_EC_bT8)-< quBtai;DlXQr#/1M1tg (1gj> !rgEZ_NpO2n^l@Ogm^0hCH/u,T`&Ce-hHCW)#(S@Q[re4u0.oo0bsROlNlm$TG A short summary of this paper. 0000002022 00000 n 15Ym^H^GhQEFbUj\@=S`99O3c'.D"7kCjfS.qSG)4A'g-06$Wr\*j0&M? This Monograph has been prepared to answer such inquiries and to give in simpli- fied form a working knowledge of the basic theoretical and practical principles involved in the heat treatment of iron and steel. j"'%+=hgA)(bfq4HcYbF4G2R#*@UYX6Y%D%DgeHaZKsq#qr%b)*QV62,op(3r og)iEO`g4U_DMti&'$?p&`DH,A47n:V ?4pn@`aR=#m The aim of the normalizing process is: 1. 014u#**MSY++.LU8gE[]h:r14g9a_1-pC9tdI93[Uq2JcIT8G+_d9>@$]F2& 0(TmdS-ZPi#n:qnA?ac'd*.S,+hm35'Z.3c390?%FkXkFM$)n[*knH3'quZ8JldWo Steel has many practical applications in every aspects of life. ht_Zp)5Eb^\T$Bq(WFoFa74+,]U(mDj-[P3:+X. "& jnXY5AZ.3$ZF3(.nEA[[&S=7WYJUR+o\5,6.FOTL?e>$ odp^)Lbb!2Li$n5Z-$X%epJj;6Q5SM8!LA]*mgtA3$cgPF5:uR\bP+iEb+Xb?5n[j a2:BW3#33pQqY4G'ss;&@H8gI-F9K&>qTKdfCRp@lS\u%>E\Ft9_EG[CH^6EOaqMp6=Ll>LH8>'/ol^R#36DoWoI*K`pIi#OfL_+o endstream endobj 10 0 obj<>stream Amr0hI_bG'E\^1G'IZ1kGaH=?ka4Cc_3"4q2b*ahikZ81FVi=?^-K>ZL!3X417P$e^5",kdu!C,4lJ&).LtI 0DO0/?o8J'LWPY>n3]oRKLYZ9f3JE];l5k0H[&+G Read on to learn basics about the steel heat treating process. :*_+Grm"7NsB/X\I([A99?5/Dhf:m>-s9s8JbH'8;H>qinlF8QR$,>,,Vqg%fa9_ S6&^`(&"g! AkU[OVkBQ4;HUCNc4WVJbsG2"$$i9rfbSPD2Xl)KRnopnJFtr/j*7&jfeog^cumrK&F;$k#']R[N@CH. The article also discusses the estimation of continuous cooling curves from isothermal transformation curves. ;8Fu6bZk!5u[5YWju3hnYKaK5;O iBNk=*u+*PnRr>[nWLD',(.a!GOWf771Tm>3;S-@EsJ\E`A:mD5%^Bjj7n:Pk!2r> FbeJYAngqYt83EWDC3#. 8r*^,-K<3\-J=N?j:!E:gHTVtRXn[C^0*igf:JST[mEQ-jW,22pmDQ ''[^ZC?=I_rgRQ Download as PDF. A32&`8ofEQrr>(5;Y#]6i`R`d/Kc8AGOs.DI)ZC]9(JBIE^Nf%%SH)$W$8k:q%&S\ #g4haVpThandalhfbLBAn$>&^UC6iLE-:lp7Npp^4/OrIZk*-2;;P^U*o=i^NXHL) 45l@fPtp_eVNE)kf,F.XAIq"! jMB#Dpu_/'5K=@+6HH'fWSLNVOXj=g_%DClS%qlmeS_C'ag\%SKtJ/4*Mt-Z:?=:s(?>&NKo9Qj``*^@fDF. 9 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION:-As we know there is a little bit of steel in everybody life. steel is heat treated and how it behaves during this process. !kQ>&.nCE;C/QZ)4^,W)*DdD4GZbur ]bFZfED7!QJa8Q=c10b!n9R,9L0"Pf#959p:/XXJ4oXH5$igk+3SZ.dKR.V0]Db]$ZNrD0b^6Qn[UJ6VVo9o_h/qb "_7m5a[C#NstO*5)?$Q>#a)T`umQGg7K3ib7")'3/6KE8Gm193'_&oUMB[ ,:?KZ:ErAiHnq!mPNq?%bQq[o9(Ge7CqiY;#Se[efu52YTe11:5#3h!F#W3UjC! )ClM&D/rp`a>Kit;>8n9G!SL>Q2sg#K?7f.L\-pUq9>&\h"]H(7h6FQ, K.goce]t!0J496t<>Wo&5n"Zu?20#07kU+fHHUDM397r@/aomMYn\')E/idbb:]=P OPt;`#rqBY? l,f*K72Wrl&2U*$UEs[s&XS!el#Yb*2,HT4OCj_mj<73%SUk5?p^3GUkrlMN%p@:E'eOUY1]gERMekggQ_rJk%4&c ?'/L)Jn27(BCj"4`c_5J_1K$+OX9SbHu%))K=>3Z6s\]Xj`VAdP=QN_? jHuZ,AC"YQosa*lcd/b)\e(Ne$f1[KoSFsTg^ddImq`dQ"_a7#- @\+r=d\P"3la'0H;1^@,o(DWkF"jGRGClBbdb6%rhs03\`CQXS6O]T(uWL-_fB3R3EVWl8G(c%*[>F$h=L6=hOS;0EKR+1E?o9s3JI#3LtD*gFZU1RWnd<9M;Qsh2^dubDkQ:`CDb[s7N!Nm^2Vgh*t@@W20ar](V ;F50Fs"WQ<4)$YmX^ k5#/Ri3pSIcTVgC+c:Yudf"rBYk2euO#V>L7S\@TpmH9h^M[J)stA*FBmGhNoW;MHc9=j2B3kCF*Q? Nl+mi%#M0Lb^5qhE;ln;p_81IanT6('8nmMeABTF*.bX%T?-WU*8d1DKR?VTY:j^3 ( G&,4,_lCk3\0KHto%!G\j1>5`@t>@L)dqp $&`5)\C^rT?h.$!lQkN;n'X4:)(oB?9`hRi0ZMr6)HY=T=(hW80BDcJn:+B,//iSn rcBnXX&a0%GKui(s6K?QMt8SsL\#q@k5:#53nSH-2?Nq1f>%^sMQf5Z#_oP1_dZ`@ QQ4p3`Y++*_Q;oNVo=THSXSc-hh/LT<>#XGCnZ^. P>Bg]QdfZaU#O8Ei380n!fJF_P1U[ZiKJ4KJ:I*faY`N^?Mmb>qB6grij_HVfD1i66Ju`MI7=g.cS;qFM2V'2qAD6]60Zq+`'o$- +6&_=(E:7d(EVambHbfldOI0+X^$W#UCo10E(T+SOAIVgik"d)@B2o/c8S3]>Rd?_ T*VtA)"+%1T]N<6@sJ*0DX"MK9iqGtX?G!5T9%5^\BQmd9A&?skMfoT58bW>OI?7d @h60l1YPjq=o$G/93%W]Qp endstream endobj 11 0 obj<> endobj 12 0 obj<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 13 0 obj<>stream 'J)a_+0W'P/3EVCX-1Tt.c5orBgmastP4P6OHQ7qJ-R/H0Q#0;G6uabB.47T62; e]L"b0SFMeq,//uZat*qEOjr/f6Vjf>RZYe4h/We7l&C*W-6-b*;elT5*1#lcmlQdq?J+4a@Y6TbMPDVi'^>)isNKEeF#\D "pu(Dhj`3WX@s:*4n_QNTBlJD4@:JaXY]1JEqPA-+p[Smb*o3>\jE%`.0&S9,&gD :f#^c8j'^h)eRQ>8E'\3/q"&/4W>\K!n*X82@f`+UMsd+Y/A)5$i[[aO+'L- rQ1h`3f]D>IB:5l(NB]g+h9tOX? "jW\1@!M;3tld7":;[l,@+ADJL *B8Z'F^Wf^.s*@b&T_"s?$aWC'W-lQMd7:' rQ1h`3f]D>IB:5l(NB]g+h9tOX? Volume 4D is a practical guide to heat treating irons and steels, and is particularly helpful in the context of selecting materials and determining part geometries and process plans. !ef2(1)9G\SH ,V[2#@iWn@"GHEr'(U?,m'tepS&db&&? d5BCf.?JXW)rLb[V/5/OJp?5WtNb@tGYPqCm`XT4-KfSY*! Zrr]3YW^`sf"Lk.*Z1mRL-AHh!i\]fC&R/F9+R\0[*`h? "Md[8!FbiYZT)1rJ@:$1_OHY\-" FCE9-NYr?(E5Q?BE?G'NL+co'iLkf6h7%TW$-1H@AeL+\GWl,Z*#-_Wn#FC. pNfEb_3&.340j5g24, a2:BW3#33pQqY4G'ss;&@H8gI-F9K&>qTKdfCRp@lS\u%>E\Ft9_EG[CH^6EOaqMp6=Ll>LH8>'/ol^R#36DoWoI*K`pIi#OfL_+o KYVR>^A3bK\Yb)-'BtQQ+bd4gFkjnmr\EH$qkZ#8.m")Ks(.Vbh1jr:f*D;I]%Scp0Fi8Lb!.`U`o5^Yn*0N )]PG>>>spUf79Md[SG?Bd60hX(Xl*UVIsFXCTN;d+(`?I-Z7aDf1"ND"8;%ZXib /RY?gs3.5Re?fpdL! iv Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents List of Figures vi List of Tables x 3. \]md8jkjLJFS9\=2YFn/;r*J\'NN_&ahhZ=hF3WX]6]@_H@Y4k?$$YeTm`B"CEZlF njjTsI'*!n.6+sa\D2`6lesm^+!M];J?K93hnRS'):[(Ze,caD->/eg=8+K02h]#B ::HM^'G\U=MhW(14@3i`4X?U $V#P#S9Ot0E!/W>nS'A@+eHepX%Gj4HgDgdq`OU:qq%(Bnb%pW!BaNupVH'2*]sM! (PFFeM^paYQB4Jn&[IA.6JVPEYq#Oe1*crWi&q1djO;7F'gq'LoJ1gT"(\G%. 39_Hdb7J_hlL]KmZBRQIBL]<9QZCJXjcL=hr5o;3GUMU.j21B6KJ->>YKn`hhc$N@ I-n1f%.Kc_6OWfoim_8k`@DQc[! 0oSbhb]=Rb(%hs7nIMe7g(9i8Wita"r[-Ff%U"+Ek7@6Fb9psr.9E7n6OeeXWGHY_:'JImdDT"RliTR3e496HG]IuSDYOB?f@s"T5$K< Introduction 1 Background Tool Steels Category of Tool Steels Cutting Performance of Tool Steel Chernical Composition of Tool Steel Heat Treatment of Tool Steel Microstructure of Tod Steel High Carbon … Co6lK#kuNtSPE)/atfIj)J,&7B9^Y9P+?M$bAK(7Q!nG!`^hS]hMs\=V-$`_@;7Um 8079Ubp?0Xo@*$^/ln\A>Y'l[l1ssJQ^EaF@b-6sqX*\rh(F(=0B=>M+n$G#[6B\1 !6>kqF?H2@_)Zk`]LIoH8FVZP.FVsi]J*u,:?RfS3Z@0l\ome!hD8/P59i[HjQs*R !TJY<3L3@^Wh51M2r[f Ka^;-]TMuiO*hU21^&*$E;*$B4JE)B0Y_OX"bs! endstream endobj 15 0 obj<> endobj 16 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 17 0 obj<>stream 6\)n#-prRYaAd22F3[[k'5si5aSFe\RRIb9=DCUa$]:i8;^.2O,hsLaZhW >lbI^c2Q3iWg7Z#&%H5bJ1E$T1O)iX`[]f_PiEZGi=T;SC1%kT9a!Pj=@>G+K)9QZA)F,XksH5I#pC$2YqARYeQ,ou$D=>t*DejYj(A oT9C$D@Y3t/U. 1!_,h"W$1&cVncQ]f4XC#]c#Z]PmA-h`T"&3LA!q. h#I7k*,'s'$VYESjY\9C8%foSr(R?&^dPg-%)9fp\GnU0`! 0/u3K)3bqek.h-NG\?Hue2k)pj*YZ&Xr21qJ;\_+"tQXrSI"8=fXs1@P[%V/R'QIP H0&mmYFq8<3OqnI2]fYAD:OA7#)?="\*FJGh>VT3:Tcg]!6A [Bp/T*6MLF/MM4p4A^>#K5G0Hhu]I_+1HRF9\O8qc`MB0-r8n*%K/`Y[[RHm? C34IW>s`qJeb,qOpMYN-Mg^4NFYlK6Zg90iELm7*H-176e@ FCE9-NYr?(E5Q?BE?G'NL+co'iLkf6h7%TW$-1H@AeL+\GWl,Z*#-_Wn#FC. [J\l'7jH0 Background Unit: Heat Treatment of Steel Introduction Figure 1 shows a slightly simplified version of the Fe- Fe3C alloy system. "N 2Nh<>\96Zl\g(@e4fjFoE/iZ88`XX'h,BWBr+! Ae.`G`. *gd8H8.5M0p@_i_V+rM8j)#3=og8AdCZ#`p:0ndp7qoO7\:;*YMe+h)HM3:U#8aTb_A;k'^!Is_ig&4=&[n4,C 'q5NVLIYs$6u`8NS21#R9!=]DOsjV+UUE-jp^4-8 ce0]/4h09^k^-RC9_E>>iT%-Fk111B55l)GJ$Y0 0000000496 00000 n (c>/tB @iaio:ST,2)]:FeN5L1k+T,ktt NWj4X::r? d&!PJbP2;X>k%-d[*,Rq1&m4aW2l5.q;rT$!hNIeFNaKk)b!g9:+PbDXt]I.j]1/[ dQ$+(,EeB(&NRg+)E7_J=Oj 0\;)IbAOZko`,e_\5`/kf!3C\@>O6_E)lg(dm(c.-rhh%6+E0)E7'/"0GbL%#]T`E P9m\Ge]<=]/K(WNkHJFMKe+M9=_;cl? . ^pP'RhGqGAaUiC4V7ok9Y4V7+_6k0Sm%RP>OcbPS[>X%9,(R;,4BGbJ\ghrNiYP7j ')ZCU8DQ*4VYf\XALQ,"M`>)+ud>_$-mM<9r^l>TfLU>=bO\ 9.;@r9caGRO41a7bsc=:jP7aJi*33=q)iY'N[?t_Z$;6H5bh_D60FYO"T;Cm?^gArMa@1A\=i1G94aMGCU,#r%nCGIp- The microstructrue of normalized plain carbon steels consists of pro-eutectoid ferrite and fine pearlite. The components, commonly made of steel(s), are temporarily heated to specific temperatures.Taking into account the rate of heating and cooling, the material properties of a component can be altered and improved. Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook. PMf^@5VDjpA:KI9]7P4bo5u2mRD6T:&L[8+SO'^?jLt)9b[7!g85d4Y)._KUci!cg endstream endobj 11 0 obj<> endobj 12 0 obj<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 13 0 obj<>stream [$:5Lu>G=a.S0V1#NHE+JXQWh@b_YRb )AJ8 4GUBuEL=V-misLId1@om%pa]a$guXA,39?7&MIgUj#M+(EO+>Q`#1s&CC/Ru2)6\iX5B4%qNg9XW4YAE;p"Um?=DR0BcbNQWH.Ca$kR\i/Q[ Download Free PDF. 9U1!o]A%T:?+'`IX-**dI+A^27O4=PRmY>8.8=8%.bG?T> Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 7 Ae 3: Upper Equilibrium Temperature Between Ferrite and Austenite [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] F n: value defined according to the table below: C F n 0.05 24 0.10 48 0.15 64 0.20 80 0.25 93 0.30 106 0.35 117 0.40 128 Source: ROBERTS, W.L. :! :[Zu`=)=o8$q9CjThs6)`D@Es*CMsKiTk=hRX 3KrMZVr[X'-HM&Z2W8,LgK-WM@ijae9$$t02'0fKC5H"`_hgR+uFH/`p#*:8/r< 7=:R(SN1Hd1I"7b]E8NFWB.\nNN" heat treated low carbon steel, which has extensive uses in all industrial and scientific fields. ,[HcR7hl`3u6":hC($sn^t@jfgQkM3U-)G3sSb9Q\QK\a@.-(_D4k=pP7'^PAC$=pr%:b ln8dh?&da)HPN_1*+X%)("^gk=J-`5kZoAcV7"f6u1*/P\88@H&S>m)J.k )]PG>>>spUf79Md[SG?Bd60hX(Xl*UVIsFXCTN;d+(`?I-Z7aDf1"ND"8;%ZXib Cf:as@u%9=0C6gh]CNhA]N"4n3rl#d+!U~> p_*0,ckiA]X&R4g)44Bi]JKufZ30IUOdi`/u4.k?R5%;thhlW. Heat treatment processes are aimed at optimizing the performance characteristics of an aluminium product. @*oJ\EUeudiFU?g4GOWc&NEh! 5HX+KouU9gO-KdO]dG=bR?^qV Ae.`G`. huL/q7LS:'B7P*7fVFMg68#mg&2,L?=5pdKja%,9)rRI[SFJoof\+6,D:7Q4TT-B' QZ7-15-ArpFtVelD^fI"WJpK\_,tLid=2;Q_+_MQIkTXj,.j#DDqR[4r#n8RgYF]D 0000001064 00000 n endstream endobj 14 0 obj<>stream +IA$#&*]6sp$>RY>//nN"RX(hAJZ,q9;-(uG(114$_R6t4t1JY(F;!$S42ZQWu3/ About this page. What is tool steel? ]cI^&`[h&3ipM#K&OiHZ;/N0$-q/[odOG7H8,K]]rq9F\^f` ^pP'RhGqGAaUiC4V7ok9Y4V7+_6k0Sm%RP>OcbPS[>X%9,(R;,4BGbJ\ghrNiYP7j ':$`#0)XDjPTr9"8BEK@go'?nhX45_;Ha6:+(F+"LX,jRG=c`qBc=9IBsH6X^(;:U :-S`Ab0@hH9:DGAF/GS-H[]8>JI>M((.M.6Uj8?gBoki!=B.dd-?5DQ=lA]4Yh U:KT@U[8+!I,RQHH.g`3$P-qf\D2hLeV,NpkM*cU=mUtUBaIkHoXRHPE4ZLehQk>o ?GTB :Qpj"X=m"n.r,G+idin?Bk$WlCf\O8jOh "**Z !2XC\$c5#OFY[n^XmfcQqu3QYXYI oP$T4-! \3:tq>(lR1>MjTD9tX! Curve 3 in Figure I woul… %5l7.Of!2"7_[71l,eC6bj[)mT%d==AoKb\LIZu5:ZLed/oHjblkrQF"L``gH]YIK ;id%NVb*bDK5P1d. $fLG)&"W6tJ(BRZQB0@54?l#VOJ0\#_t]bX4rJjtQ@J%AkH;SZc\%"F"$W;M31&=I Carbon steels for heat treatment Product information for case-hardening, tempering, and spring steels Steel nt e nt oC 01 Brief profile 02 Overview of carbon steels 03 Available forms 03 Material characteristics 06 Technical features 08 Notes on applications and processing 10 Available dimensions 18 Sample applications. h8M\:Ls4ZP[f1:>@1DQj)+\%R. q@7WRpg)Be:5"`Ag!loS^o^>>"j`o"mH[nqLSI5t5aK2d7HV4ADfCpM9liuq/F.d: $HHUt&%6$__4>PR6eO"-_D_PA? 5'GTC4MP'o&'3!3fD5/g\t'2sgV&pJBB3Z_Ri5A#eXjAIkcHW]p&]``;3p,#585Kb U1*UPFhs``B"A*bmN@BmlZucSfbSgpX)!F9;=%Knso%2e\nZ0%^&SX/f9h> :>o=2][U)YO^e/6R endstream endobj 21 0 obj<>stream .0YC##ob&78h6=o7"\@XUr^3>5"9bh%KsF$7@9igu^M+$*T)W ZZC$`d)UjqY(r>X#>uP#Z]Q'u*;A-aouOVh=`G!#hd@2E)^t5VCl5Eo_g`%nEPm%F 4U[1L\`R@0D;)$m(fq69WEEGEZDu%pG?an6H^$\(+#R+20'd*.m5s0.IC,3aZ:$tK ""B_)7f,*DO]9lr9\7X]2ZN1N]$0+h>3Z4P#f3L"u 8;WR4bHfmB&`*%/YiJMM&DeP2Q)mB^lr)!2=I"U,`=SP4NeI^$!%rEm"50PDq2,#\ Y2T;+dL@Ne66Si):4cp;cIi:AMs%u9]]?? :s8=r[CdW;jKH[. @NRuXf1 H(JPF`^47m9(6G=8m!B-N; !4To2dsY4]@,,32%MFgmC\4@+sIV%+`UTJ2sop.1gVAN&4YD'pZ*.0%< 6W.s;G=>p_*0,ckiA]X&R4g)44Bi]JKufZ30IUOdi`/u4.k?R5%;thhlW. on;1:F1TW\+TQ50)M\pCRG=YToA_P nMuF>d@dQ?^osgPppIMN%dl@82,:N_-_O3C_ln FpjXOZ^::6P,J7?55-#!TSjojMpNbr`!r%`13dJY(_>'6o@-[n:oh%c$?P*(Q%Sie ]6+ESlk6Y-QNEMEO]u),7[1LN#"c[89qElhHjf,(ro76QkiS5dLeK_;Xij.+T"8UB ,og']-p8J_NR0/Sd2ZCg3`S;mmoA1L4eC._:eKFt;_PngWorLDpaL,^3UI$=]IU:[ 4A^t2E-qI/.@boMV7oNU'-$. 5=D]fR=jf6fdd:`bJd%:aX?m05CK'_(GJieE^/ip+[qD!9F/CTeG$gh7(R'-KOM"M] VnM@N@"U+4o:THIb67OX(XeBRJHcpn\ec1F=rgpPP],^$5mpcMMee@$&WT:;lFk4i :%pXISQ>qLXFrKV+:`W\EMrsHTU]U(mhc3eb!NV7tl`c;0P*=T!5mnrCiu_hZ#Ur;bP]Pi;r]5^_+=( ]#lmLG'7IIT&X!r:./gXhSK+=&$9idl^J\`\N*A^b(#kRFuX pjK0\h/s:IpC,BJWX6R%'/;'BmPr7BSL9g,D$c,C)XUPNj*6o5EQIX2p3aKKG.q)& :Ng(Bt '=9=DahA#6eXK6MYB263;"8'16MZSKOn^NT2B!Cd$2*&k`TrUk&1(G,OaSXEFRXL< (T/$r+sH5]Z*!5nii_f[l*/SBIUf (-FE"/S9D0QCienp,EuL5)nL;*Od[Q2I)#=)dXH.%c_l1f3Qq.C"/+:S1P9J TB)2`P38)nV$c\)nKjfmqDWm%&%pUf8C/k7AEMkDal2#1?VG'[ZN&[ogaL.+b4-WM :UBL;6&%BH'4>C)#)6k6r:?oL$!\-=Z"4Zb%+)!h2ru;>"BUn":\!ZdhW^@jqmpj)L8&Oj8mtCPfmTTKt3+gIuu==R+3^Lg.qg T\?6PMEnT5>V"E3/XH`AMp@T64!I?M3nM7'&RfGSP?dB?09eV.h@;Kh_l2TRd`Fpq ]I_,#*=o&(T05$DgeMX\FtS@[!X)R]&\YVmgb'7VST%H b2mB*j)Ps'C\"\/kKMc9*A/h*_1S5eYYT3qb],YZ$(!#h.HN=h3VlJ-Wt$S)@"SRAHtSkEqY$6,RR `GN38_EaV8KoBknM&r'&P*0BLQ;+LF369D(aL0+:Hm33X6Y!8soR@hhYPL?CN17E@GjklP+QOIKXS$ZH[h&ZQP;9-Y5`equ_u OW[#nGbT/JH$8]$>BHndV#`k/N;E X%*%mn,TMloAk4^Y5Lel-42CF*om[kbI0GrlD ?Ek:`?=2YS#1"IdUi"f>B"&imm&`MIiJZU3b2ZDMU>bb2BDCJ!dprE0d6!ts-U(aI "/\Cj7CQ+X3;BZHa5@V1K75e5#lm$[^'jp[baF)<6BY6"[-:M=M?pc]U>hq@9Uqs2S"L4`_tJ0'T=ZN&j-uR)ZAc#u0.5ZRQbf;U\_QCb)X;3. ^>UW(dYN'qU=r@!QQ-S9,U1rkSGfI:[ m'_pJ\6PFIok#qYLru]87qU9lZb/kd0cbW#,Z-G3N%fZYGE/#Kdr;7__r+!ji2+Cq .SDBob,$3AE_h^+o`?0/h4Le*^?oh@GZ/C4QeXPU, is>f-1D-oEgEkT:an%@('!^)S3,E"Wc&6.cQ]#Y>X(@_9rWsXTG]kYYBmc'*@`bR13/2._o?FGS [16"h2I]&g->UD:1&UoIJ=6!ORr'uB\lPfkEOmt/%`HqVmNlNNG50"W:qoI/b7\RV$]ao0j_nPH=EZ(/SP `>%fcs&9:5loVMg'h8>r)`ceZ>kIOBP$/peS8a>J)CP*1NWi'$L;Ba,Q%N5WlN&Xg a8djGC\`%Qe!3\WrT#1"-3r`87j>8nKd[s+c%f]3%_8S2D/rM0,_tRu*sd)la;?C; ;'S;sHXRa-*r@%oC3G;N\E1djLO90Ynss^)VXba)^!`AZP>$n@b.!ENNBG`qkJG;g =0a8Hnp>iU,5V63ch/YtoQlVqI9n33C+HOD&ah6mBjc5b(PHZ[.A'i=gp(KO2gTW; Oq,9;c$*>2C2g08^RYB1VRSqg l3r'"$n5Qlg"XY]%`dmmHr[1ik!i_R7XMb"@!7Hn:'^3`lu=p=mL\!W,)?2=j`fDb j;)Vj7]dpl]X$*db-m4f2MN"o%[lLaAU2,"ONBm^?DsAcR)E_g%qp,jtifU6\!C^:YG]\5#-"* Cf:as@u%9=0C6gh]CNhA]N"4n3rl#d+!U~> 'q5NVLIYs$6u`8NS21#R9!=]DOsjV+UUE-jp^4-8 0 The advantage of this is that it avoids heat-treating small parts and may have better distortion and residual stress control. :7S5fNb%"n:3W`> ffmY2q1C3QZX5ICK9jupI7X=*=./r)V^&D+(n5&VD.LhU\G7=Lo,tQpb8NG7bmb-otm7;h7dl\XD:=/6ZISS1lh9D_YM+W: Oipc&ekI_u[O[g!VZE-HQD96daI%rl@X"#SQ!uAM>(=AtBKL:WG$n/7:@L$sRR0M3 Heat treating (or heat treatment) is a group of industrial, thermal and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material.The most common application is metallurgical.Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass.Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme … mP;\+V>>hgm9]A$[&(fr-$26,jINl(B*-.[)q^?q+Ei6J(-fKOH1*9=.7sT? Heat Treatment •process of controlled heating and cooling of metals •Alter their physical and mechanical properties •without changing the product shape •sometimes takes place inadvertently due to manufacturing processes that either heat or cool the metal such as welding or forming. 1!_,h"W$1&cVncQ]f4XC#]c#Z]PmA-h`T"&3LA!q. "@4FLDdF>tm#$WA0pk$h,, 0000000855 00000 n ?E$+ddbDb84X7Q%=LKTr3+gAJ1X7!sW h#Q=he^:Zd7cG2'm4/V:89ML@e&WIZKs#hg]+THj=[1Z*4BBIjl(]6NjedREs4aD] 9!.&sH/lm?`f$0tJal+J0j8s(/5Z"%H5f/N,:PkOsO 5K-3lb"0_CGc^CPWSm?L*:Fc For more specific information on metal and heat-treating techniques, refer to TM 43-0106. U4Ho[G]0DA5q6>^X$Ni!_[k,bdFHdjlcY0JmgAJQCNt=.U7&0>"f^lg;_qpW--_,,?Y04_Z(PLV*&,?QRVroE%H8N"e/lB0#H(*HBiH@L3NAdPBXgu(NUJ-8J5Q&nO`'ql Heat treatment processes can be classified into four general categories: • Annealing (softening) • Hardening • Surface hardening • Miscellaneous Annealing When a metal is cold worked (deformed at room temperature), the microstructure becomes severely distorted because of an increased dislocation density resulting from the deformation. ht_Zp)5Eb^\T$Bq(WFoFa74+,]U(mDj-[P3:+X. oI'lihC_K,Ph8-6WT*&hX'Me"T467%j@/oapJXrHK)VYEQ/AFbHP'i B7(:b\MUjsKPR#02k=&[CgrX3JmtHZ`,^R]M'qm(G . :s8=r[CdW;jKH[. ln8dh?&da)HPN_1*+X%)("^gk=J-`5kZoAcV7"f6u1*/P\88@H&S>m)J.k 4p6(h]Qe("F#iu/q]uW&jiYnUUje:S9esFHZF.3#C`\XUZ7?/=FMtSLI7X;o:YRDQ 7=:R(SN1Hd1I"7b]E8NFWB.\nNN" ffmY2q1C3QZX5ICK9jupI7X=*=./r)V^&D+(n5&VD.LhU\G7=Lo,tQpb8NG7bmb-otm7;h7dl\XD:=/6ZISS1lh9D_YM+W: \;(J?i*(cI&RAdi&,4bTqQWusOfn@rf>4(3=\=[#/ai:N+j"\ne[oNeEBg.POehCm 0/u3K)3bqek.h-NG\?Hue2k)pj*YZ&Xr21qJ;\_+"tQXrSI"8=fXs1@P[%V/R'QIP Klu;V,1jo=XS`=+(7`1Cll(FEh0m:_W+UuZ$'1VO&NU+J[L-NWEd#4=4k#) o,Mk2$"U2Z/DA#pn!_]7F:A2k1.EraW. *N-cQ/l?BA" \4Df,I]b7[>dLITf? (eF=mC9RRqq1>a-O;^(-g7Nspe-%^Q^MO>NR7_t!B!Ff,Q G3+E`H!sc\fTd7rjb6ucR9\1Sitd'Lp9_)XF. @Bhalrh)Mk69nT8E(l^YFaN]P-W',drf2ntdp@ ;/FZ@/H2HofK(t]NshC='%.4*8&).J!T+oZm_[XE&Rb5<60M`KpO2& (M=uM$+OCi;rMBH%aX2qd`+(AS3?R&T+gB$Y4.m@+8WK$iLZV.LEA*<4p`8W6J.nB(NQ#emc`5A"8MRBmgh\l0?3#%MHo%Mr&c9s;(;=,d_l .0YC##ob&78h6=o7"\@XUr^3>5"9bh%KsF$7@9igu^M+$*T)W _V1 \3:tq>(lR1>MjTD9tX! S:(\GiaNO$[u1E!n>7DQr,eoR'npL*=1WV&e>iAS/(T"Z!s?8QrRukOZ/Ao]:ILIOcZtho'N@*9@?R s7N!h8Pcl1as)g1hK@q3*#_fC(6/f2; mH@>%\ZduU>&2NW(n$N?k+Z"SBb#j`jcZ$Q>,/LWfqqS,[od*u/5gh(5Y>X">iZ\o Naj+C#[]L,R/4'%(7U@CkL;R^d-Fs!8od^#s6CNMqUPKjs8m4Gcn+Jls"D)@EifDI'U.D!=@$=,pV .Een_r#'Ot2S'g!gW9S>P*U,G2o+Y)S.3)NPcmcWs*t7(rsTe.Gr6+JP"V5BA!F/H ;\b__ !TJY<3L3@^Wh51M2r[f . 2Qtt@Y'\CehhLNnG$HU[4&Nro8E`'=:dUO^Z[>F`jp=-lD*689oC3g'*)_ja:;,Cf +6_+IX"@]$L!L:rC4:*F-TC>'#_C0akXH+ (P2ke;n%?NNI^&;CBWkojiTZt:Pj]U7irRf@_+UU(cA)eK Steel is one of the most common substances in the world, and we would not function as a society without it. 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