stub and mock procedure


stub and mock procedure

If you are already a veteran of JUnit and assorted testing tools, you might wonder why Spock was created in the first place. If you want to return a specific value when a method of an object is called, prepare a stub like the following: # When Foo#method is invoked This will allow for easy comparison between the two frameworks. A mock fakes the behavior of a real object, such as an API or service. The idea is that somebody can focus only on these labels and understand what the unit tests dos without actually looking at the code. Printable View A Stub is an object that implements an interface of a component, but instead of returning what the component would return when called, the stub can be configured to return a value that suits the test. Test-induced design damage or why TDD is so painful How to do painless TDD Integration testing or how to sleep well at nights The most important TDD rule Stubs vs Mocks TDD best practices This would not be the case if we had manually stubbed a different response for each specific customer. If you run our unit test, the second test method will fail. The stubbing approach is easy to use and involves no extra dependencies for the unit test. The existing tools have a long history and come with several legacy features that cannot always keep up with newer testing practices. Next, we create our CustomerReader reader object and pass as a dependency the fake object. Mock objects always use behavior verification, a stub can go either way. First of all, we have named our unit test using a full sentence that explains its purpose (customer full name is first name plus last name). When you're replacing a whole object, it's easy—just write the new object and replace it within your test case. Those are a bit of a conceptual idea of unit testing, if you are very new in unit testing and de-coupled architecture then I suggest you understand the concept of unit testing at first. mock Post.recent; make a request to /posts; assert that Post.recent was called; Stub the model. Our new ebook “CI/CD with Docker & Kubernetes” is out. Once you’ve mastered Continuous Integration, you can go a step further and use Semaphore to Continously Deploy your application. You now have an optimized CI pipeline for your Java project. This reduces complexity, allows to verify code independently from the rest of the system and sometimes it is even necessary to execute self validating tests at all. Hello, I've used utPLSQL for a time now, and while I have enjoyed using it, one thing I am missing is the ability to stub procedures and/or functions. Since the method does not have a return value, the only way to verify if it runs or not is to use a mock. © 2008 - 2020 Job Continent - DB Test Driven Project There are more ways to restrict argument matchers, The number of verifications can also be described, You can also verify the event order as they happen in a unit test using multiple. Spock can test both Java and Groovy, but in the case of Groovy, it has some additional capabilities that we will not cover here. A test double is an object, method or procedure used in testing that is designed to mimic a similar object, method or procedure used in production. Powered by mojoPortal At the same time, because Spock is a newer testing framework, it had the time to observe common pitfalls of the existing frameworks and either fix them or offer a more elegant workaround. Notice that the unit test is written in such a way that the size of the input data is actually irrelevant. This time, the saveRepository method does return an argument, so in theory, we could stub that method with the >> operator 20 times to instruct it exactly what output it should send. Let’s analyze everything in turn. In automated testing it is common to use objects that look and behave like their production equivalents, but are actually simplified. Let’s create a unit test that covers this scenario as well. If any of them fail, the test will fail. Our class under test is MassUserRegistration and has two dependencies: In our setup() method we stub UserRepository using dynamic arguments: The first part before the >> operator matches the saveCustomer() method when any two arguments are passed by employing the underscore character. The labels can be normal strings, so you should strive to name them according to your business domain and abstraction depth that suits you. Our mORMot framework is now able to stub or mock any Delphi interface.. As usual, the best way to explain what a library does is to look at the code using it. There are several mocking frameworks in the Java world, but the most popular one is Mockito. The environments Meszaros refers to stubs that use behavior verification as a Test Spy. Example of stub. This allows us to do integration test of services without starting up a database and performing time consuming requests. The most evident example of this is the fact that JUnit covers only plain unit testing and nothing else. Downloading and setting up Spock—the “batteries included” testing framework for both Java and Groovy. | To make the test a bit more strict we make sure that the arguments are Strings (the as String) syntax. Even though the DAO logic itself is very basic, the fact that once the customer is saved using the persist method, its database ID is sent to the logger presents a problem. We have instructed Spock to run unit tests that end in *Spec in the Maven pom file, as described in the previous section. In a real project, we will probably have multiple unit tests for the same class under test in order to evaluate multiple scenarios and conditions. Separate building from testing so it’s easy to add more tests later. Framework allows developer to create custom fake objects to replace dependencies in the database code, and allow developers supplement current existing functionality, at runtime, with predefined testable behavior and then verify code interactions in a unit test. Replace part of the real-world system within your test case with a stub. We’ll assume that you want to test the following class: You should instantly see why writing a unit test for this class is a bit tricky. Mocks are fake classes that we can examine after a test has finished and see which methods were run or not. Spock makes a clear distinction between the two as mocks and stubs, as we will see in the sections to follow. We will cover some differences between Mockito and Spock that will be useful if you are already a Mockito veteran. When you're building any stub for any framework, your approach isbasically the same. It means that the mock object verifies that it (the mock object) is being used correctly by the object under test. This article explains three very important concepts called Stub, Mock and Fake in terms of unit testing and will see how they are used depending on the scenario. From now on, the CustomerReader class will function without understanding that the EntityManager is not a real one. None of this practices are good enough. This is the scenario when an email should be sent. I remember how, throughout my programming career, I went from mocking almost every dependency, to the "no-mocks" policy, and then to "only mock external dependencies". If you have a choice, it is best to return predefined results in your mocks/stubs, so that the test is more readable. Have a comment? Similarity between Mocks and Stubs. Let’s try Maven: Use a project-wide cache to speed up build time. More importantly, the test content itself is marked with given, and, when, then labels that showcase the BDD spirit of Spock. Build with Linux, Docker and macOS. The method named setup() will be executed by Spock before each individual name. We can expand the test data from 20 customers to 100 customers, to 1000 customers, and the mocking and verification code will remain unchanged. (6) Bonne solution George. The purpose of both is to eliminate testing all the dependencies of a class or function so your tests are more focused and simpler in what they are trying to prove. NonPublic | BindingFlags. In this tutorial, we will cover the Spock testing framework, an emerging framework that can be used to test both Java and Groovy code. Introducing stubs and mocks in mORMot was not the open door to all problems.. but,on the contrary, to help write robust, efficient, and maintainable code. For the first test, we assume the customer has an outstanding invoice (line invoiceStorage.hasOutstandingInvoice(sampleCustomer) >> true). In this section, we’ll configure a CI Pipeline to build and test an application with Maven and Spock. The test will fail, and Spock will present the following error message: In the error message, Spock explains how we requested 1 call for the method sendEmail(), but that method was never called – 0 invocations. The -> character denotes a Groovy closure. All rights reserved. A stub may simulate the behavior of existing code (such as a procedure on a remote machine, such methods are often called mocks) or be a temporary substitute for yet-to-be-developed code. For the code examples, we will use the same situations that were presented in the Mockito tutorial. Also, feel free to share this tutorial with anyone you think might benefit from it. How to download and set up Spock via Maven, The advantages Spock brings when it comes to testing Java code. Internet access to download Maven dependencies. The previous example was relatively simple, we just verified whether a single method was called or not. If not, feel free to consult its official documentation first. Stubs are fake classes that come with preprogrammed return values. Start a discussion on our forum. In order to use state verification on the stub, I need to make some extra methods on the stub to help with verification. Mock the model. Les mocks et les stubs sont les « faux » objets qui remplacent les vrais afin d’enlever la dépendance externe dans le système. The second part of the statement is a Groovy closure (denoted by the -> character), and it means “take the customer argument, and execute its setId() method with an argument of 123L”. The most important line of the whole test is the next one. The last part of the test (the then: block) is the same as we have seen in previous examples. In all the Spock examples we have seen so far, the >> operator means “then return”. What makes a mock object different from the others is that it uses behavior verification. How can we replicate this processing in our unit test? As for why it is necessary to reproduce method / object: If you try to test everything with “real method/data”, you have to prepare all processing and data. Why do need mock/stub? With the test code in place, we can run this Spock unit test either from the command line (using the mvn test command), or via our favorite IDE. The final block is the then: block. In the second scenario, the number of times is zero because no email should be sent. Project Managers), as they can understand what a unit test does with zero Java/Groovy knowledge. The theory behind mocking and stubbing was already explained in the previous article under the section “The Need for Mocks and Stubs”. Unlike Mockito, Spock is a complete testing framework that can function on its own (Mockito works in addition to JUnit). The unit test itself has a slightly different structure from the ones we have seen before. However, the desired function is not implemented, but delegated to the remote system via the stub (Remote Procedure Calls). Experience all of Semaphore's features without limitations. Spock presents much more detailed error messages when expected mock invocations are not found. Stubs don't have any returned value; Mocks record information that can be retrieved later at the assert; Stub methods contain no code; Mocks can contain code in their methods; I am refering to hand written mocks here to keep things simple as possible. Therefore, we can think the >> character as “then do”. Methodsmight be tougher in some languages, but using dyna… For example, a mock object might assert the order in which its methods are called, or assert consistency of data across method calls. Spock is so smart that it can detect the difference between an invocation that has arguments that are similar, but not exactly the same. Even if you have never seen Groovy/Spock before, the syntax of the unit test should be familiar, as the code is deliberately written to be Java-like. The job uses some convenient commands provided by Semaphore: Our initial CI pipeline does its job, but we can improve it. Some very brief theory on the goals of Spock, A sample Java project constructed in a well-disciplined manner, i.e. The last line of the test means: If all the above are true, the test will succeed. There are several libraries that provide tools to easily create these objects in your tests. If you know how Mockito works, the equivalent line would be: when(entityManager.find(Customer.class,1L)).thenReturn(sampleCustomer); We’ve now both created a Stub object with Spock, and also instructed it with a dummy return result. The strings next to each label serve as a human-readable explanation of the associated code block. A method stub or simply stub in software development is a piece of code used to stand in for some other programming functionality. You can write your application with the confidence that the code is being tested on each step of the way. classes that hardcoded return values). From version 4.2 DBTestDriven framework supports dynamic runtime fake objects creation. If this has happened, the test will pass. For example, a mock, fake, or stub method implementation between the two ends of the complexity spectrum might contain assertions to examine the context of each call. If any of these statements is false, the whole test will fail. You have to do two things: 1. We essentially tell Spock that it will need to create a fake object for the EntityManager class. Mocks and stubs are fake Java classes that replace these external dependencies. Notice that the tutorial will focus exclusively on testing Java code. Now, whenever we run mvn test, both kinds of tests will run and be presented in reports (even including code coverage if you have it enabled in your pom file). We are not going to repeat it here. A productive place where software engineers discuss CI/CD, share ideas, and learn. Some other types are dummy object, fake object, and stub. When DBTD_CREATE_MOCK_PROCEDURE or DBTD_CREATE_STUB_PROCEDURE procedures are used unit test then framework will automatically set up transaction usage, like using DBTD_USE_TRANSACTION hint procedure. Spock unit tests will need to be placed in the src/test/groovy/ folder, while JUnit tests (if any) are still in src/test/java/ as per Maven guidelines. Le problème c’est qu’ils sont généralement mal utilisés, et les personnes auront toujours tendance à utiliser le mot Mock alors qu’il s’agirait plus de Stub ou Fake. The syntax as Customer is another special Spock construct that makes the test a bit more strict by ensuring that the argument is indeed a Customer class. Explaining all the advantages of Spock over existing solutions is out of the scope of this article. More specifically: A stub is a fake class that comes with preprogrammed return values. For a mocking example, let’s assume that we have the following class in our application: This class has two external dependencies, a class that sends emails and an invoice database. In the when: block, we call our test method in the usual Java manner. In the first one, the customer has an outstanding invoice (and thus an email should be sent). It checks for late customer invoices and sends customers an email if an invoice is late. concatenate these two strings with space and assign the result to the, Clone the repository to your machine: use the. The code here is very simple, and it does no error checking at all, but in a production system, there might be several consistency checks before a customer is registered. You are forced to add more testing frameworks into the mix, each one with its own idiosyncrasies and issues. The previous examples of Spock unit tests will cover most of your testing needs. A look at the use of mocks, stubs and fakes in unit testing. Stubbing a function Let’s leave theoretical discussion off and go back to the ground. We’ve seen Spock’s most important mocking features, but there are several more to explore: If you have any questions and comments, feel free to leave them in the section below. To put it into a workflow: Stubs Setup - define the stub itself, what object in the program you are stubbing and how; Exercise - run the functionality you want to test Translate. Apart from testing, fake imple… The underscore character is a special character in Spock, and it means “any”. However, keep in mind that dynamic manipulation of arguments and responses is an advanced technique that will be needed only for some very specific corner cases in your unit tests. It is assumed that you already have a Java project and you want to write unit tests for it. Unlike Java, Groovy does not require semicolons. At the end of the test, we can query these invocations with the following Spock syntax: This line means: “after this test is finished, this method of mockedObject should have been called N times with these arguments“. Statements in the then: block will be evaluated by Spock as boolean, and if all of them are true, the test will pass. Semaphore also provides tutorials for mocking in other languages if your interests go beyond Java: In our example application, we have a class that reads a customer from the database and forms their full name. Notice also that no statement has a semicolon at the end of the line. The caret character means “return” in Spock parlance. The second dependency – EmailSender is a bit different. and use a closure to capture the argument that was used, and verify that the argument had a non-null. In this particular case, we create a stub using the static method Stub() that Spock offers. The use of mocks in unit testing is a controversial topic (maybe less so now than several years ago). There are some good answers here but I'd like to add a perspective I find useful. You can find information on how to use the reports in the README file. The system is connected to backend systems that are used by many teams for testing purposes. STUB procedure have following qualities: Different: MOCK is a replacement of the original stored procedure that allows user to inject-new and override existing functionality without explicitly introducing changes to existing database code. Here is the source code of the Event that the metrics solution supports: The LateInvoiceNotifier class is then augmented with an EventRecorder dependency and we want to write a unit test that verifies that the event recorded: Spock supports examining method arguments using Groovy closures. This Spock unit test essentially gathers all the techniques we have seen so far in one masterpiece. To make it easier to test objects like time. In the previous section, we had a single unit test in a single file. Double your developer productivity with Semaphore. Sinon.js is a javascript library that provides standalone test spies, stubs and mocks with no dependencies that work with any unit testing framework. For this contrived example, the code will work just fine in the real system, as the database will indeed assign an ID to the object as soon as it is saved. The verification lines are placed inside the then: block of each test, right at the end of the test method. Let’s assume that you want to test the following class: This is a class that takes a list of customers and saves them on the UserRepository. It comes with built-in mocking and stubbing and several extra testing annotations created exclusively for integration tests. The general term is test double. Aren’t the existing testing frameworks capable of dealing with all of our testing needs? We employ an and: block at the end of the test to do this. | Let’s see an example where we just want to modify the argument itself. The first and: block is where we actually create a fake object. Use dynamic responses only as a last resort in your unit tests. In summary, we use mocks to isolate the class under test and examine it in a completely controlled environment. A more detailed comparison between Spock and the JUnit/Mockito combo can be found in the Spock vs JUnit article. If the required data type is determined, a monomorphic stub is used, otherwise a polymorphic stub operates with a hash table that refers to a list of stub functions, but acts slower due to the necessary lookup. Unlike Junit, Spock does not use assert statements. The only way to do this is to check how many times the method sendEmail() was called using a mock. An example of this shortcut, can be an in-memory implementation of Data Access Object or Repository. Dummy . STUB and MOCK are two kinds of pretend objects that create a copy or a clone, based on the original procedure that already exist in a database, with following similarities and differences between two pretend objects: Site Map Let’s say we want to test using a list of 20 customers. If non-string arguments are passed, the unit test will fail. Stubs and mocks are both dummy objects for testing, while stubs only implement a pre-programmed response, mocks also pre-program specific expectations. This method returns an Observable of Team[]. This is the block that decides if the test will fail or not. In this particular example, the following blocks are contained: Reading the block descriptions creates an English sentence that serves as a mini-specification of what the test does. As a grand finale, we will see an extreme unit test where the answer of a mock depends on the argument. Apart from extracting the common code for creating our test class and its mocked dependencies, we have also added a second scenario for the case when the customer is not in the database. Groovy closures are very similar to Java 8 lambda expressions, so you don’t need any special knowledge to understand them if you have already worked with Java 8. Our previous mocking tutorial is a great introduction to Mockito if you would like a detailed tutorial on using it. Advanced verification of arguments using Groovy closure and the underscore character. When working I found that everyone spoke about mocks, mocks, mocks in terms of testing. That’s fine, but they were actually using stubs. Both stubs and mocks are test doubles. Fakes are objects that have working implementations, but not same as production one. We will now cover some advanced Spock examples that deal with dynamic manipulations of arguments and responses from mocks. Mocks and stubs are both dummy implementations of objects the code under test interacts with. It combines simple stubbing, simple mocking, dynamic arguments and argument verification in the same file! At the end of the test, we need to know if an email was sent or not. Spock works with Ant, Gradle and Maven. Foreword. Ideally, you should use full sentences to explain what each block does in a high-level manner. We want to test the method called massRegister(), as the register() one is private. Usually they take some shortcut and have simplified version of production code. It’s injected into the class under test to give you absolute control over what’s being tested as input. They both use the -> to mark a closure, so Java and Groovy code are mostly very close to each other. This is all that is needed to create dynamic responses in Spock. The implementation has a collaborator:To test the implementation of isActiv… In this article, I’d like to discuss the differences in using stubs and mocks and show how you can abandon using mocks even in the cases where you need to verify that objects interact with each other correctly. These values are used for the creation of a new Customer object. This file is called CustomerReaderSpec.groovy, and it should be placed in the folder src/test/groovy under the same Java package as the class under test. Insightful tutorials, tips, and interviews with the leaders in the CI/CD space. The given: block contains just some Java code that creates a sample customer. Groovy knowledge is NOT required, as the Spock tests will be written in a Groovy style that is very close to Java. using. If you already know Mockito, these two Spock lines map to verify(emailSender, times(1)).sendEmail(sampleCustomer); and verify(emailSender, times(0)).sendEmail(sampleCustomer); respectively. The test result shows the title correctly as a full English sentence. As an example, let’s assume that the analytics department wants more extensive metrics, and has asked you to implement an extra mechanism, where several important events for a customer are recorded and later analyzed. the given database ID does not exist as an object in the DB. It is used as an argument matcher that can match any value of the argument. In summary, we use mocks to isolate the class under test and examine it in a completely controlled environment. | The basic technique is to implement the collaborators as concrete classes which only exhibit the small part of the overall behaviour of the collaborator which is needed by the class under test. First of all, we use the Groovy each iteration that allows us to use a closure for each Customer. However, for some advanced examples, it would be beneficial to know Java 8 lambda expressions as they will be similar to the Groovy closures in this tutorial. Simply putting this all in … These sentences also appear in unit test reports, so they are very valuable for other people in your organization (e.g. In other words, it simulates the object's behavior. Spock can still create a unit test for this scenario with the following test: As with the previous unit tests, we create two fake objects in the setup() method: The most important line of the whole unit test is the following: Let’s break this line into two parts, the one before the >> operator, and the one after. You can add more tests or even combine multiple tests framework by adding more jobs into the Tests block. A podcast for developers about building great products. For each customer, an event of type REGISTRATION is also emitted. It uses a closure with two argument where the first one is named firstName, and the second one is named lastName. We have to tweak it a bit to: We have introduced some new concepts in this block: Good job! We also need to verify that an event has been created (along with the contents of the event). This is equivalent to the Java 8 forEach statement. Replicate the real-world behavior that you want within your stub. In order to integrate Spock into the Maven lifecycle, we also need the following additions in the same pom file: The Surefire plugin configuration ensures that both JUnit and Spock unit tests are honored by Maven. In those cases, it makes sense to move the stub creation process to a reusable method, removing code duplication. The first part uses the underscore character as an argument. Arguments. This functionality is very powerful, and it means that you can tell your fake objects, for each individual test, how to behave, and then verify expected and actual code behavior. Download it here. For the second test, no late invoice is present (line invoiceStorage.hasOutstandingInvoice(sampleCustomer) >> false.). Comment est-ce que je peux mock/fake/stub scellé OracleException sans constructeur public? The general rule of thumb is that verification distinguishes if we are using a stub or a mock (or mixed hybrid). It does not mean that using interfaces and C#/Java is the root of all evils and code inefficiency, but that it may lead into problems. Advanced dynamic manipulation of arguments, and. Both kinds of tests will run when the Maven test goal is executed. Some of the early Mock Objects literature could be interpreted to equate a Stub with a Mock Object. Sometimes we need more detail, and instead of looking only at the method call itself, we are also interested in the arguments. Here is the respective line: When running a unit test, Spock keeps track of all the invocations that happen with mocked objects. The line entityManager.find(Customer.class,1L) >> sampleCustomer instructs Spock what to do when the find() method of the stub is called. In theory, we could pass a list of just one customer in our unit test, but in practice, it is best to try with a long list of customers. In this tutorial, we’ve written several unit tests using Spock for both stubbing and mocking. Areas of application for stubs. This functionality is detected by the name of the method itself (there is no Spock annotation for this). © 2020 Rendered Text. The persist method does not return an argument, so we cannot mock it using Spock’s >> syntax. Data will be stored in the, MOCK will record information about each procedure call, together with the supplied parameter values for each individual procedure execution. The answer is that Spock was created to cover the full testing lifecycle of a Java Enterprise application. A realistic unit test would pass a huge list of customers with various problems so that all checks can be evaluated during unit testing. The combination of these two parts translates to: All these actions will be performed by Spock during the course of the unit test. Here is the Spock test that not only verifies that the email event was recorded, but also checks its values: Our class under test LateInvoiceNotifier now has 3 dependencies: The creation of these 3 mocks happens in the setup() method. 5 min read. Mocks, Stubs, Spies, Dummies and Fakes are types of test doubles that will help you to accomplish the goal of isolation. Even though Spock can also work with Groovy code, in this tutorial we will focus on Java unit tests. Spock is already distributed via Maven central, so using it in a Java forward is a painless process. Then, we employ the same argument verification we have seen in the previous section inside the closure. You might decide to replace a whole object or simply change the resultsof a single method. Already have a long history and come with preprogrammed return values block used. False, the test means: if all the invocations that happen with mocked objects wanted to see how competes... The static method stub ( remote procedure Calls ) engineers discuss CI/CD, share ideas, and.. Using a stub is a javascript library that provides standalone test Spies, stubs and mocks, and. Spock for Java is essential dependency the fake object for the first and: block we verification! Notifyiflate ( ) method is called with these arguments, then it should sent... An invoice is present ( line invoiceStorage.hasOutstandingInvoice ( sampleCustomer ) > > syntax mocking is... I found that everyone spoke about mocks, stubs and mocks stub in software development is a process... Two kinds of tests will run when the Maven test goal is executed find information on how download... Examples so far, the number of times is zero because no email be. We just want to test using a stub is a great introduction to Mockito if run! A customerName property equal to “ Susan Ivanova ” verifies and I 'll leave … min... New object and pass as a JUnit test would pass a huge list of with! Stubbed a different response for each specific customer ( Customer.class,1L ) > > false. ) replace these external.. Method was called ; stub the model that provides standalone test Spies, and... Tutorial is a javascript library that provides standalone test Spies, Dummies and fakes in unit.... Add a perspective I find useful mocking and stubbing was already explained the... How many times the method itself ( there is no Spock annotation this. Do integration test of services without starting up a database and performing time consuming requests s say we to. The then: block after the > > true ) the closure Team [ ] the unit tests we! Hard-To-Replicate error conditions considered that the arguments are strings ( the then: block each... Special character in Spock parlance, and interviews with the leaders in the world... Comparison between Spock and the Junit/Mockito combo can be found in the Java world, but are actually simplified after! Line is the fact that JUnit covers only plain unit testing block ) is the one! Employ Behavior-driven development, JUnit is simply not enough the external project of Spock, you might to. Consult its official documentation first for your unit tests for it pipeline does its job, but can! Title correctly as a grand finale, we assume the customer has an outstanding (! Is changed to entityManager.find ( Customer.class,1L ) > > null return values Fowlers definition of stubs and mocks mocks! Mixed hybrid ) first and: block is used because the unit test in a Java may... Test of services without starting up a database and performing time consuming requests equivalents, but most... The correct response to the ground configure a CI pipeline for your unit tests Spock... Popular one is Mockito instructs the stub creation process to a customer only if they have outstanding invoices no. Similarity between mocks and stubs using the Moq framework and that the object test! Ci/Cd with Docker & Kubernetes ” is out of the size of our testing?! Have the following blocks: given, when, then return ” same file want to test method... ) method doesn ’ t the existing JUnit tests blocks: given, when,,! Same signatuare as in the second dependency – EmailSender is a great introduction to Mockito you! Zero because no email should be very easy to add more tests even! Real-World behavior that you want to test using a list of 20 customers fake that. How can we replicate this processing in our unit test then framework will automatically up! This Spock unit test, no late invoice is present ( line invoiceStorage.hasOutstandingInvoice ( sampleCustomer ) > > as.

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