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Minaret of the mosque at Ghardaïa, Mʾzab oasis, in central Algeria. In pre-colonial times, the Sahara was generally considered Blad Essiba or "the land of dissidence" by the Moroccan central government and Sultan of Morocco in Fez, and by the authorities of the Deys of Algiers. Stone artifacts, fossils, and rock art, widely scattered through regions now far too dry for occupation, reveal the former human presence, together with that of game animals, including antelopes, buffalo, giraffe, elephant, rhinoceros, and warthog. Although they are Islamic, they retain a matriarchal organization, and the women of the Tuareg have an unusual degree of freedom. The greater mobility of nomads facilitated their involvement in the trans-Saharan trade. However, most tribes, regardless of their mixed heritage, tend to claim some form of Arab ancestry, as this has been key to achieving social status. The Tuareg (who call themselves Kel Tamasheq) were renowned for their warlike qualities and fierce independence. Much Of Sahara Desert Was Green Thousands Of Years Ago – Ancient Rivers Reveal Earth Changes February 1, 2021 Eddie Gonzales Jr. – MessageToEagle.com – We do know that Sahara, which is the world’s largest desert covers one-third of the African continent was in ancient times, some thousand years ago this vast area was fertile grassland. In southern Morocco, France upheld indirect rule through the sultanate in some areas, while Spain exercised direct administration in others. The Teda, of the Tibesti and its southern borderlands, are chiefly camel herders, renowned for their independence and for their physical endurance. The Arabic word Ṣaḥrāwī صحراوي literally means "Inhabitant of the Desert". The tribe was the historical basis of social and political organisation among the Hassaniya-speaking tribes of the Sahara, well into the colonial and arguably post-colonial period. Flora and Fauna. Uprisings and violent tribal clashes therefore took place with increasing frequency as European encroachment increased, and on occasion took the form of anti-colonial holy war, or Jihad, as in the case of the Ma al-'Aynayn uprising in the first years of the 20th century. 2. The Sahara was not always a parched desert as it is today. Thus, the court recommended the UN to continue to pursue self-determination for the Sahrawis, enabling them to choose for themselves whether they wanted Spanish Sahara to turn into an independent state, or to be annexed to Morocco or Mauritania. Most people who settled in the Sahara Desert live near _____. The Sahara Desert is the world's largest hot desert, covering much of North Africa. Modern distinctions drawn between the various Hassaniya-speaking Sahrawi-Moorish groups are primarily political, but cultural differences dating from different colonial and post-colonial histories are also apparent. Explain the life of people of Sahara Desert. (Some tribes would also traditionally migrate into northern Mali and Niger, or even further along the Saharan caravan routes.) Morocco controls most of the territory as its Southern Provinces, but the legality of this is not internationally recognized by any country and is disputed militarily by the Polisario Front, an Algerian-backed movement claiming independence for the territory as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR). Its parched, forbidding landscape took shape over thousands of years, but even today, the Sahara is constantly changing. Huge areas are wholly empty, but wherever meagre vegetation can support grazing animals or reliable water sources occur, scattered clusters of inhabitants have survived in fragile ecological balance with … The Nubian aquifer is a major source of water in western Egypt and Libya. Living in the Desert. In fact, it can even snow. Thompson, Virginia and Adloff, Richard (1980), This page was last edited on 25 January 2021, at 15:18. . Oulad Delim). Many of the remaining oasis dwellers, among them the Haratin, were subjugated by the nomads. At the peak of society were the aristocratic "warrior" lineages or clans, the Hassane, supposed descendants of the Beni Hassan Arab tribe (cf. Despite considerable cultural diversity, the peoples of the Sahara tend to be categorized as pastoralists, sedentary agriculturalists, or specialists (such as the blacksmiths variously associated with herders and cultivators). Gobero Skeletons. While the hottest temperature was 136 degrees Fahrenheit and was recorded in Libya in 1922, temperatures can drop below freezing at night due to the lack of humidity. Pazzanita, Anthony G. and Hodges, Tony (1994). Most people in the desert are nomads or people who move place to place, but they raise sheep, goats, and camels. The Sahara Desert is the world's largest hot desert, covering much of North Africa. Since 1991, there has been a cease-fire between Morocco and Polisario, but disturbances in Moroccan-held territories as well as the ongoing dispute over the legal status of the territory guarantees continued United Nations involvement and occasional international attention to the issue. In traditional Moorish-Sahrawi society, Arab tribes of the Tekna confederation claimed a role as rulers and protectors of the disarmed weaker Berber tribes of the Takna confederation. Often, though not in the case of the Tekna, the Berber-Arab elements of a tribe's cultural heritage reflects social stratification. The Sahara Desert is the world’s largest hot desert. Many people think of the Sahara as a very hot place, but it can actually be quite cold. Even cultures near large water sources and edible plants can lose everything very quickly if the climate shifts even for … The current Moroccan constitution (adopted in July 2011) mentions, in its 5th article, the Hassaniya language and recommends its preservation as a cultural heritage of Morocco.. Some shallow groundwaters are artesian, but it is often necessary to use water-lifting devices. Western Sahara is mainly desert with high temperatures and local people in the remote areas where Clifton is assigned, are faced with the challenge of access to this vital resource. Garamantia was a notable Berber kingdom that flourished in the Fezzan area of modern-day Libya in the Sahara desert between 400 BC and 600 AD. In the heart of the Sahara, for instance, most mammals are relatively small, which helps to minimize water loss. (Note that "Haratin", a term of obscure origin, has a different meaning in the Berber regions of Morocco.) Rich bidan families would normally own a few slaves at the most, as nomadic societies have less use of slave labour than sedentary societies; however, in some cases, slaves were used to work oasis plantations, farming dates, digging wells etc. Spanish Sahara was treated first as a colony, and later as an overseas province, with gradually tightening political conditions, and, in later years, a rapid influx of Spanish settlers (making Spaniards about 20% of the population in 1975). The organization is based in Algeria, where it is responsible for the Tindouf refugee camps. November 15, … Even though it is difficult to survive in the desert, some powerful civilizations have formed in the Sahara. As with most peoples living in the Sahara, the Sahrawi culture is a mix of Berber, Black African and Arab elements. It is believed that people have inhabited the Sahara Desert since 6000 BCE and earlier. Archaeological evidence suggests that the Sahara was increasingly inhabited by diverse populations, and plant and animal domestication led to occupational specialization. Do people live in the Sahara Desert? This tribe entered the domains of the Sanhaja, and over the following centuries imposed itself upon them, intermixing with the population in the process. In the early 13th century, the Yemeni Maqil tribes migrated westwards across the entirety of Arabia and northern Africa, to finally settle around present-day Morocco. Generally speaking, the Hassaniya populations were (or are) divided into several groups, of different social status.. The Tuareg are a pastoral people, having an economy based on livestock breeding, trading, and agriculture. The political loyalty of these populations were first and foremost to their respective tribes, and supertribal allegiances and alliances would shift rapidly and unexpectedly. Islam eventually expanded through the trade routes, becoming the dominant social force in the desert. Pro-independence Sahrawis, on the other hand, point out that such statements of allegiance were almost routinely given by various tribal leaders to create short-term alliances, and that other heads of tribes indeed similarly proclaimed allegiance to Spain, to France, to Mauritanian emirates, and indeed to each other; they argue that such arrangements always proved temporary, and that the tribal confederations always maintained de facto independence of central authority, and would even fight to maintain this independence. As the orbit slowly changed and less rain fell, humans would have needed to … The area today referred to as Western Sahara remains, according to the United Nations, one of the world's last remaining major non-self-governing territories. This could be considered the closest thing to centralized government that was ever achieved by the Hassaniya tribes, but even these emirates were weak, conflict-ridden and rested more on the willing consent of the subject tribes than on any capacity to enforce loyalty.. The International Court of Justice issued a ruling on the matter in 1975, stating that there had existed ties between the Moroccan sultan and some (mainly northerly Tekna) tribes in then-Spanish Sahara, but that these ties were not sufficient to abrogate Western Sahara's right to self-determination. In this documentary, we will travel to the heart of Western Sahara, the last remaining unexplored region of the great African desert. Traditionally, Hassaniya Sahrawi society was completely tribal, organized in a complex web of shifting alliances and tribal confederations, with no stable and centralized governing authority. The Sahara in central Africa is the largest hot desert on Earth, its blistering sands practically lifeless. 3. Ancient methods such as the shadoof (a pivoted pole and bucket) and the animal-driven noria (a Persian wheel with buckets) have been replaced by motorized pumps in more accessible oases. Today Hassaniya is spoken in south-western Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, southern-Morocco and Western Sahara. The Moorish populations of what is today northern Mauritania established a number of emirates, claiming the loyalty of several different tribes and through them exercising semi-sovereignty over traditional grazing lands. Historically, religious practice has been pragmatically adapted to nomad life and local tradition.  These populations are centered in southern Morocco, Western Sahara, and in the Tindouf Province of Algeria, where large number of refugees from Western Sahara are located. Huge areas are wholly empty, but wherever meagre vegetation can support grazing animals or reliable water sources occur, scattered clusters of inhabitants have survived in fragile ecological balance with one of the harshest environments on earth. The Tuareg diaspora, with a total population of around 2 million, is spread across Saharan Africa in such places as southeastern Algeria, Niger, southwestern Libya, northern Burkina Faso, northern Nigeria, and Mali. In other languages it is pronounced in similar or different ways: Nomadic Berbers, mainly of the Senhaja / Zenaga tribal confederation, inhabited the areas now known as Western Sahara, southern Morocco, Mauritania and southwestern Algeria, before Islam arrived in the 8th century CE. But of all the deserts in the world, it ranks third … According to Wikipedia, Sahara is the largest hot desert in the world. Whenever you enter a desert, bring more water than you expect. Modern Standard Arabic and the Amazigh language (a standardized version of Moroccan Berber languages) is the official language of the Moroccan administered part of Western Sahara. These were called marabout or zawiya tribes (cf. Fossils of dinosaurs, including Afrovenator, Jobaria and Ouranosaurus, have also been found here. For example, in 2006, nearly 130 people perished in the Rajasthan, India region in flash floods induced by torrential rains in the Thar Desert. It was not until the 1930s that Spain was able to finally subdue the interior of present-day Western Sahara, and then only with strong French military assistance. According to the Ethnologue database, there were more than three million Hassaniya speakers in 2006, of whom 2.7 million resided in Mauritania. 1. (Photo credit: Mike Hettwer) Large parts of the Sahara Desert were green thousands of years ago, evidenced by prehistoric engravings in the desert of giraffes, crocodiles and a stone-age cave painting of humans swimming. According to Wikipedia, Sahara is the largest hot desert in the world. Direct evidence of agriculture first appears about 6,000 years ago with the cultivation of barley and emmer wheat in Egypt; these appear to have been introduced from Asia. As described above, the Hassaniya speaking tribes are of Arabian, Beni Hassan descent, who fused with the dominant Sanhaja Berber tribes, as well as Black African and other indigenous populations (e.g. There are also some groups who practice farming, particularly in areas where permanent vegetation is found. Life in the Sahara. Evidence of the domestication of native African plants is first found in pottery from about 1000 bce discovered in Mauritania. They take refuge in burrows during the day, hunting and foraging primarily at night, when temperatures are lower. Paul Sereno has already featured on this list, as he was part of the team which … The Sahara Desert is a vast expanse of undulating sand dunes. There are several dialects of Hassaniya; the primary differences among them are phonetics. Water availability strictly limits oasis expansion, and, in some, overuse of water has produced a serious fall in the water level. The word Sahrawi is derived from the Arabic word Ṣaḥrā' (صحراء), meaning desert. Caravan Trade. One thing that has constantly defined these cultures is the eternal search for resources.  X Research source In an emergency situation, you'll be thankful for any water you carried. A giraffe painting from a Green Sahara epoch. Among some groups, hunting and fishing were subordinated to nomadic pastoralism, after domesticated livestock appeared in the Sahara almost 7,000 years ago. Sahrawis from the refugee camps are regularly provided with free flights in Algerian military transport aircraft. The Sahrawi, or Saharawi people (Arabic: صحراويون ṣaḥrāwīyūn; Berber: Iseḥrawiyen; Moroccan Arabic: صحراوة Ṣeḥrawa; Spanish: Saharaui), are the people living in the western part of the Sahara desert which includes Western Sahara, southern Morocco, much of Mauritania and the extreme southwest of Algeria. During the last humid period, the Sahara was filled with hunter-gatherers. Rather than accumulate much in the way of material possessions, their cultures tend to rely on kinship networks, and in the absence of large forms of art, many take body art, clothing, and music very seriously. People have lived in the Sahara long before recorded history, at certain times in regions that are now too arid for human inhabitance.  The Arabic dialect of the Beni Ḥassān, Hassaniya, remains the mother-tongue of Mauritania and Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara to this day, and is also spoken in southern Morocco and western Algeria, among affiliated tribes. The governments of the pre-colonial sub-Saharan empires of Mali and Songhai appear to have had a similar relationship with the tribal territories, which were once the home of undisciplined raiding tribes and the main trade route for the Saharan caravan trade. Berber caravans transported salt, gold, and slaves between North and West Africa, and the control of trade routes became a major ingredient in the constant power struggles between various tribes and sedentary peoples. They often meet their water needs from their diets. Reuters/Rafael Marchante. French and Spanish colonial governments would gradually, and with varying force, impose their own systems of government and education over these territories, exposing the native populations to differing colonial experiences. 5,000 years ago the Sahara desert was home to people, animals, and lush vegetation. It shows mainly Berber people core characteristics with Arab cultural elements. In one of the most inhospitable lands of the planet live the Ulad El Mizna tribe. The Sahrawi-Moorish tribes remained largely nomadic until the early to mid-20th century, when Franco-Spanish rivalries (as well as disagreements between different wings of the French colonial regime) managed to impose rigid, if arbitrary, borders on the previously fluid Sahara. A man is called a "Sahrawi", and a woman is called a "Sahrawiya". People of the Sahara: While the Sahara is the hottest place on our planet, a few people have managed to live in this harsh environment. But Western Sahara and scattered minor parts of Morocco fell to Spain, and were named Spanish Sahara (subdivided into Río de Oro and Saguia el-Hamra) and Spanish Morocco respectively. Many of these people rely on centuries-old customs to make their lives as comfortable as possible Civilizations throughout the Middle East and Maghreb have adapted their clothing to the hot, dry conditions of the Sahara and Arabian deserts. Oasis dwellers in the Sahara were increasingly subject to attack by the Sanhaja (a Berber clan) and other camel-mounted nomads—many of whom had entered the desert to avoid the anarchy and warfare of the late Roman period in North Africa. In the 11th century, the Bedouin tribes of the Beni Hilal and Beni Sulaym emigrated westwards from Egypt to the Maghreb region. Mauritania houses about 26,000 Sahrawi refugees, classified by UNHCR as "people in a refugee-like situation". Camel nomadism was adopted by the tauregs. Morocco represents a country that illegally occupies the Sahara. The cultivators have been associated with the Gangara, the ancestors of the modern Soninke. On more than one occasion, the Berber tribes of present-day Mauritania, Morocco and Western Sahara would unite behind religious leaders to sweep the surrounding governments from power, then founding principalities, dynasties, or even vast empires of their own. Caravan Trade. It is inhabited by 2.5 million people, who survives by domesticating livestock and migrating to places with water and vegetation, as stated in Britannica Encyclopedia. Since then, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks, and Europeans have been among the peoples in the area. All these groups were considered to be among the bidan, or whites. Imraguen), as well as peripheral semi-tribal groups working in the same fields (among them the "professional" castes, mallemin and igawen). But just a few thousand years ago, it was a home to early human civilizations. Pastoralism, always nomadic to some degree, occurs where sufficient scanty pasturage exists, as in the marginal areas, on the mountain borders, and in the slightly moister west. Although camels were used in Egypt by the 6th century bce, their prominence in the Sahara dates from only the 3rd century ce. These nomadic Berbers have for centuries led a pastoral lifestyle in the Sahara Desert. He published in 1955 a monumental book on the subject, whose thoroughness and depth have not been equaled so far. Western Sahara is the last African country to have not yet obtained formal and substantial independence. Even though cultural arabization of the Berber people was thorough, some elements of Berber identity remain. 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